The clinical use of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been one of the most important advancements in clinical neuroscience over the past 20 years. DBS can provide individualised stimulation that has immense therapeutic benefits for neurological and psychiatric disorders linked to dysfunctional circuitry. This technique has great use in measuring abnormal brain activities when utilised as a surgical instrument.
The DBS surgical method involves implanting a device that sends electrical signals to the brain regions responsible for controlling movement. Electrodes are attached to a stimulator device deep inside the brain. A neurostimulator controls brain activity with electric pulses similar to a heart pacemaker. This deep brain stimulation surgery is significant for patients with Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, or epilepsy, as it helps reduce symptoms such as tremors, slowness, stiffness, and walking difficulties. Besides, this surgery may help reduce patients’ medications and improve their quality of life. This medical technique has several benefits, some of which are discussed in this article.
- Overcomes Dyskinesia and Improves Body Movement
Patients with severe Parkinson’s disease may experience dyskinesias. This is an uncontrollable movement primarily brought on by using LEVODOPA as a side effect. Electrical stimulation has the potential to reduce dyskinesia. Patients experience a 90% reduction in dyskinesias after DBS surgery. Further, studies show that DBS to the subthalamic nucleus lessens the symptoms of sluggishness, tremor, and stiffness.
Besides, the surgery helps patients to lower their drug dosage and diminish side effects like dyskinesias. Inserting stimulators in the globus pallidus directly impacts dyskinesias. Placing stimulators in the subthalamic nucleus can reduce the need for dopaminergic medication, lowering the side effects of dyskinesia. The technique is identified to be more effective in managing symptoms over the long term.
- DBS Helps Reduce Tremors
DBS is also an effective medical treatment for people with essential tremors. Specifically, tremors correspond to the involuntary rhythmic shaking of one or more body parts. The condition usually occurs due to muscle spasms. This common movement disorder makes it challenging for people to write, eat or drink without their hands or arms trembling.
Your tongue, vocal cords, and brain may all be impacted by an essential tremor, which can worsen with stress, weariness, or stimulant medications. However, you can regain your natural stability through deep brain stimulation surgery. The procedure helps block the aberrant nerve signals in your brain that are the root cause of these hand and arm tremors.
- Overcomes Sleeping Issues
People experiencing insomnia, fragmented sleep with early morning awakenings, excessive daytime sleepiness, trouble turning over in bed, dysuria, nightmares, periodic limb movements during sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder can benefit significantly from DBS.
Subthalamic nucleus DBS may increase sleep quality, nocturnal activity, and alertness following the commencement of sleep (minutes spent awake after initial sleep onset). Likewise, the overall quality of sleep may improve through pallidal stimulation. Besides, pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation may help advanced Parkinson’s patients with severe gait and postural issues.
- Improves Quality of Life
For some patients, drugs can not provide the necessary motor skills. Besides, some side effects make it difficult for people to continue medication. In such situations, the process of deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be a saviour. The medical procedure reduces the need for drug treatment and improves the quality of life.
The deep-brain stimulation therapy may be particularly beneficial for Parkinson’s disease patients. This surgical procedure places small wires in the brain to deliver electric pulses to specific locations, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN), to block abnormal electric signals, thereby improving motor skills. The technique allows patients to successfully manage motor symptoms and lower the daily drug dosage, which eventually helps improve their overall quality of life.
- Ease of Implementation and Handling
The initial surgical process may be complex, but DBS’s overall maintenance and handling are significantly easy. There are no limitations concerning the application of DBS. Depending on the symptoms, it can be applied on either side of the brain.
Additionally, the effects are reversible and can be tailored to the individual clinical circumstances of each patient. Furthermore, stimulation settings can be changed to reduce potential negative effects and gradually increase effectiveness. Not only this, the system can offer continuous symptom management every day. Overall, DBS works continuously to improve patient care.
DBS is a remarkable medical advancement for patients with chronic conditions, including Parkinson’s and epilepsy. The surgical treatment helps regulate uncontrollable bodily movements and improve motor skills brought on by these illnesses. Greater control over actions and movement stability is advantageous to patients.
DBS is also beneficial in improving sleep quality and resolving other sleep-related issues. The entire method improves patients’ quality of life by helping them gain control over their behaviour. They feel independent when they can complete daily duties without help from others.
The entire procedure is a life-altering experience that has a significant potential to boost the medical industry. Therefore, this technique must be further developed to ensure the well-being of the community at large.
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